While some elements of the Windsor Framework applied immediately following its adoption in the Joint Committee, many of the changes are being introduced gradually, and certain milestones must be met for the introduction of the changes.



9 January 2023

The UK and EU reach an agreement on sharing trade data. The data sharing arrangements is one of the conditions for the trusted trader/internal market system in the Windsor Framework 

27 February 2023

The EU and UK reach an agreement in principle on the Windsor Framework.


24 March 2023

The EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement Joint Committee formally adopted the new arrangements set out in the Windsor Framework.

1 October 2023



The new trusted trader scheme, the UK Internal Market Scheme, expands the range of goods considered ‘not at risk’ of moving into the EU single market, and therefore increases the range of businesses which won’t have to pay EU customs duties when moving goods GB-NI. From September 2024, reduced customs paperwork will apply to these goods and the ‘full’ system will be in effect.

1 October 2023

The Northern Ireland Retail Movement Scheme (NIRMS) begins to operate. This means simplified rules and procedures for pre-packaged retail goods being moved from GB to NI. UK, not EU, public health and consumer protection standards apply to food and drink from GB, which is being sold to consumers in NI. Where required, EU standards on animal and plant health still apply.


Identity checks are reduced to 10% of all consignments of retail goods.


Certain conditions are to be fulfilled: enhanced SPS inspection facilities are to be in place in Northern Ireland. Prepacked meat and fresh dairy should be individually labelled as ‘not for EU’. The UK Government is providing transitional reimbursement funding during this first phase of the labelling requirements.


The Northern Ireland plant health label (NIPHL) scheme comes into operation. Traders can move plants and seeds for planting, seed potatoes, and agricultural and forestry machinery and vehicles from GB-NI, with easier requirements, if certain conditions are met, including having a valid NIPHL. Previously there was a ban on seed potatoes and certain plants from moving GB-NI.

31 January 2024

The UK Government published the ‘Safeguarding the Union’ Command Paper.

12 April 2024

The Windsor Framework (Implementation) Regulations 2024 enter into force, giving the UK Government powers to issue statutory guidance about the arrangements for implementation of the Windsor Framework. They also confer powers on Government Ministers to be able to do anything that a Northern Ireland Minister could do for the purpose of observing or implementing the relevant provisions of the Windsor Framework.

By 31 July 2024


The UK should give the European Commission a progress report on the completion of SPS inspection facilities in NI (and then every three months until the requirements are met).

30 September 2024

The full UK Internal Market Scheme will take effect for the movement of goods from GB to NI: full international customs requirements for traders are removed and simplified procedures apply.

30 September 2024

The new set of arrangements for the movement of parcels GB-NI will apply.


1 October 2024

The labelling requirements apply to all dairy products from GB using the Retail Movement Scheme, such as UHT milk and butter. The Government has decided this also applies across the UK from this point. The frequency rate of identity checks on retail goods consignments reduces to 8%.

31 December 2024

By this date, the first vote takes place in the Northern Ireland Assembly on the continued application of Articles 5-10 of the Windsor Framework, as outlined in the democratic consent mechanism. Read our explainer on the consent mechanism.

1 July 2025


The final SPS inspection facilities are to be in place in Northern Ireland.

1 July 2025

All retail goods (other than goods sold loose) should be individually labelled (with some exceptions for those not subjected to EU official controls (e.g. confectionery, chocolate, pasta, biscuits, coffee). The rate of identity checks on retail goods consignments reduces to 5%.

31 December 2025

The grace period for veterinary medicines ends. By this date, the UK must ensure that supplies of veterinary medicines to Northern Ireland conform with relevant EU law and the provisions of the Windsor Framework.

By 1 January 2027

A review of the Enhanced Coordination Mechanism on Vat and Excise should take place.